Category Archives: Uncategorized

The Lynchburg Campaign: Brig. Gen. William Averell’s Report of Operations

MAY 26- JUNE 29, 1864–The Lynchburg Campaign.
No. 22.–Report of Brig. Gen. William W. Averell, U.S. Army, commanding Second Cavalry Division.

HDQRS. SECOND CAV. DIV., DEPT. OF WEST VIRGINIA,
Charleston, W. Va., July 1, 1864.

COLONEL: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of the cavalry under my command since the 1st ultimo:
On the 1st of June my division, consisting of the brigades of Brigadier-General Duffié, Colonel Schoonmaker, and Col. J. H. Oley, was encamped at Bunger’s Mills, Greenbrier County, waiting for supplies from Charleston of horses, shoes, clothing, &c. Crook’s division crossed the river on that day, leaving me to bring up my detachments and supplies, which did not arrive.
On the 2d Mr. David Creigh, a citizen of Lewisburg, was tried by a military commission and found guilty of murdering a Union soldier in November last. The proceedings were subsequently approved and Mr. Creigh was hanged at Belleview on Friday, the 10th of June. The detachments and supplies for which we had so long waited failing to arrive, I followed Crook’s division on the 3d to White Sulphur Springs with 3,200 mounted and 1,200 dismounted men; 600 men were without shoes, and many other articles of clothing were much needed. From the 18th of May until this day we had waited near Lewisburg upon half rations, most of the time for necessary supplies of horseshoes, nails, and clothing; but owing to the miserable, inadequate, and insufficient transportation furnished from the Kanawha we were obliged to set out again almost as destitute as when we arrived. The march from Sulphur Springs to Staunton was made in five days via Morris’ Hill, Warm Springs, Goshen, and Middlebrook. My barefooted men suffered terribly, but without complaint on this march. At Staunton the much needed supplies were received.

 

On the 9th Brigadier-General Duffié was placed in command of the First Cavalry Division and my own was reorganized as follows, viz: First Brigade, Colonel Schoonmaker–Fourteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, Eighth Ohio; Second Brigade, Colonel Oley–Seventh West Virginia Cavalry, Thirty-fourth Ohio Volunteer Mounted Infantry, Third West Virginia Cavalry, Fifth West Virginia Cavalry; Third Brigade, Colonel Powell–First West Virginia Cavalry, Second West Virginia Cavalry. The Third West Virginia Cavalry was assigned temporarily to the division of Crook and has remained with it since.

 

At the request of the major-general commanding the department, on the 9th I submitted a plan of operations the purpose of which was the capture of Lynchburg and the destruction of railroads running from that place in five days. The plan proposed the movement of Sullivan’s, Crook’s, and my own division by different roads up the Valley, while the division of Duffié, after threatening the position of the enemy at Rockfish Gap, was to pass southward along the western base of the Blue Ridge, making demonstrations at the various gaps, sending scouting parties to destroy the Orange and Alexandria Railroad and to arrive at Buena Vista Furnace, on Jackson River, at the close of the second day. On the third day he was to move through White’s Gap to Amherst Court-House, destroying the railroad, sending a detachment of his division toward Lynchburg for that purpose, while he proceeded with his main body across the James River below Lynchburg and destroyed the South Side Railroad east of the city, his entire division forming a junction with the corps of Major-General Hunter south of Lynchburg. The plan was approved and adopted, and orders were issued covering the operation for the first day. By direction of the major-general commanding I gave to Brigadier-General Duffié complete and comprehensive verbal instructions with regard to the route he was to take and the services his division was to render. He was also furnished with memoranda to assist his memory.

 

On the 10th my division marched via Summerdean to Belleview, on Hays Creek, with little opposition, communicating with Crook at Brownsburg, two and one-half miles to the east. Efforts were made to cut off the rebel force of McCausland, which had attempted to make a stand against Crook on the Brownsburg pike. Taking the route via Cedar Grove, on the 11th my division crossed North River at the Rockbridge Bath and endeavored again to cut off McCausland, who had burned the bridge at Lexington, and was opposing the crossing of Crook. The enemy, however, avoided the danger by a hasty flight and the town of Lexington fell into the hands of my division with little or no resistance.

 

No communication having been received from General Duffié, I sent scouts to find him during the evening of the 11th and the ensuing day, which time was wasted in waiting to hear from him. Fearing he might fail in the execution of the most important part of his work, I dispatched 200 men, under Lieutenant Grim, First West Virginia Cavalry, and Lieutenant Kerr, Fourteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, on the evening of the 12th, from Lexington through White’s Gap, via Amherst Court-House and around Lynchburg, to destroy the railroad. The perilous duty assigned to these officers was most gallantly performed, and they rejoined their regiments on the 15th. The report of Lieutenant Grim is inclosed.

 

At 2 a.m. on the 13th my division moved toward Buchanan, driving McCausland in disorder across the James River. He was pursued the last eight miles to Buchanan at a gallop, my advance endeavoring to save the bridge at that place, but the flying forces of McCausland set it on fire before he himself had crossed, obliging him to ford the river to escape capture. Two brigades were immediately thrown across to a fruitless pursuit. Several bateaux, loaded with provisions and stores, were captured near this town. Two of my scouts who had been sent to Duffié the day previous returned, having fallen in with a reconnoitering party of the enemy ten miles from Lexington, from the commanding officer of which they received a dispatch to bear to Breckinridge, a copy of which is inclosed.(*) A spy from the enemy who came into my camp soon after my arrival was killed by my order. I soon received a notification from the major-general commanding that he should remain that day at Lexington, and instructions to wait for his arrival at Buchanan.

 

The 14th was occupied in destroying some important iron furnaces in the neighborhood of Fincastle. On the 15th my division followed Crook’s over the Blue Ridge between the Peaks of Otter to Fancy Farm, where General Crook, having received information that Breckinridge was at Balcony Falls, desired me to wait until the arrival of the main body, as our left flank would be too much exposed. The brigade of Colonel Powell was sent forward to Liberty, and the country in that direction was most thoroughly scouted by him that evening. Scouts were sent to Lynchburg and every other direction.

 

The following morning my command pushed on through Liberty, rebuilt the bridge over Little Otter River, forded Big Otter, and attacked McCausland at New London about dark. He had been re-enforced by Imboden with 400 men and two guns, but relinquished his position after a short action, in which he lost about a dozen men.

 

At sunrise on the 17th my command moved by the old road toward Lynchburg, some two miles to the right of Crook, who moved on the direct road from New London. The enemy resisted our advance at every step after arriving within eight miles of the city, but it was not until we came in sight of the stone church, four miles from Lynchburg, that he seemed determined to give battle. I constantly advised General Crook of my progress, and after a brief reconnaissance of the position, opened the attack. The ground was difficult for cavalry, and its peculiar formation made the following disposition necessary: Schoonmaker’s brigade furnished a strong skirmish line, mounted, across the open ground, supported by squadrons with intervals in columns of fours, open order, ready to charge or dismount to fight: Oley’s brigade on the right in column, Powell’s on the left, in the same order. The enemy retired as the attack was developed, with very little skirmishing, but as it approached the crest of the hill upon which the church stands a rapid artillery fire was opened upon us, and their small-arms became unmasked. Schoonmaker’s and Oley’s brigades dismounted and ran to the front; the section of artillery with my division galloped up to the church, supported by Powell, and opened its fire. The enemy signally failed in his ruse to draw us into a position from which he expected to drive us. After a short but sharp contest he was driven nearly a mile toward Lynchburg. Crook brought up two brigades, which were soon deployed and advanced to the support of my line, and two of his batteries also arrived at the front. The enemy, driven to his field-works, received re-enforcements, and confidently advanced to charge my line. Had the infantry support been in position, to have carried on our success, then we might have achieved some important advantages. As it was my line had a hard struggle to maintain its position until the infantry arrived, but with it came the dusk of evening, and although the boldness of the enemy was severely punished, our attack was delayed until the morning.

 
During the night, by the direction of the major-general commanding, efforts were made to communicate with Duffié, who had lost himself on the extreme left. Scouting parties were also sent to obtain information from the city. Re-enforcements continually arrived to the enemy. On the following morning Duffié was found and ordered to attack on the Forest road. Two hundred men under Captain Duncan, Fourteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, were sent to the enemy’s extreme left to harass him, and, if possible, destroy the railroad. Later Powell’s brigade was sent to attack the enemy at the Campbell Court-House road.
The enemy busied himself with throwing up earth-works during the night of the 17th and the day of the 18th, until 4 p.m., when he advanced from his works, making an attack, which was quickly repulsed. Schoonmaker’s brigade was placed in position during the action, but was not called upon to enter it. Oley was looking out for the rear and left. It was evident that too many lives must be expended to carry the enemy’s position. The morrow would find him in a condition to assume the offensive, if not already so. The delay at Lexington, rendered necessary by the deviation of the First Cavalry Division from the course ordered for it, and the change of place made by ordering it to join the main body, instead of going around Lynchburg, had proved fatal to the successful execution of the original project.
The orders of the major-general commanding to withdraw westward along the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad left me as rear guard of the column, which position was maintained until our arrival at Liberty. Between the Big

and Little Otter Rivers I received orders from the major-general commanding to make a movement upon the Danville railroad, which were suspended soon after at Liberty. Upon the arrival of the army at the latter place it halted to rest west of the town. I had requested that a brigade of infantry be left to support me, anticipating an attack from the indications in rear; but my request was not granted, and unaided my division stood the brunt of a severe attack for two hours. Schoonmaker’s brigade especially distinguished itself by its obstinate resistance. My ammunition failing, the division was withdrawn behind Crook’s, which had been formed in line of battle a mile in the rear. My loss in this severe engagement was 122.
At 3 a.m. the 20th the march was resumed in the direction of Buford’s Gap. Scouts had informed us that a heavy force of cavalry had passed the night before to the northward in the direction of the Peaks of Otter. Arrived west of the gap, my division was placed in position in connection with Crook’s to enable the troops to rest and refresh themselves. At sundown the column was again in motion toward Salem, Duffié division in advance of the trains, and my own in rear, with the exception of Powell’s brigade, which was left with General Crook in rear. Staff officers were sent forward to direct General Duffié to picket strongly all the side reads until the column had passed. At Bonsack’s Station no picket was found on the road to Fincastle, and scouts sent by me upon that road reported a cavalry force of the enemy moving in the direction of Salem. An officer was dispatched to General Duffié with directions to take a strong position near that place, and patrol a distance of four miles upon every road leading to it.
I received during the night an order from the major-general commanding to send the train on at once from Salem upon the road to New Castle, but not feeling assured that the road indicated had been properly patroled, I postponed the execution of the order until my arrival at Salem, to which place I hastened, finding the division of Duffié asleep among the wagons at daylight, with one brigade in the village and pickets only just outside. Without leaving my saddle I roused one of his regiments and sent it at once upon the New Castle road, with orders to attain the summit of Catawba Mountain, seven miles from Salem, and await further orders. Immediately after it I sent one of his brigades to support it. I directed the two brigades of my division with me to be posted opposite the Fincastle road to await the attack of the approaching enemy. It was soon reported from Duffié’s advance that the New Castle road was blockaded. I directed him to take his entire division present and proceed to clean out the gap and hold it until the column had passed, placing a regiment upon the summit of Catawba Mountain to hold that position. The wagon train followed him. The cavalry of the enemy at this time attacked my brigades on the Fincastle road, but were repulsed. The action could have been made much more decisive in our favor had General Sullivan granted assistance, for which he was vainly importuned, although he had a brigade within a few hundred yards of the scene. Meeting the major-general commanding upon my return from the flank, I represented to him the necessity for resting and refreshing the troops, explaining to him the arrangements which had been made and the positions taken, all of which he approved, directing provisions to be cooked in the town, and the artillery and troops to bivouack. Shortly after it was reported that the enemy had attacked our trains in the gap, and later that he had captured some pieces of artillery. Who had started the artillery upon the road or who knew that it was not in camp as had been directed, I am unable to say. With the brigades of Colonel Schoonmaker and Oley the enemy was soon routed in a brilliant manner, the guns retaken and several of the enemy killed and captured. It was found upon proceeding through the gap that General Duffié had neglected to observe any of the instructions he had received. Not a single precaution had been taken by him to prevent the attack which had occurred, and not a regiment nor a man had been left by him upon the summit of Catawba Mountain, but pushing northward he was only halted by a staff officer sent by me. During the night of the 21st my division followed the First to New Castle, guarding the roads leading to the east and west until the main body had passed. The march thence to this place via Sweet Springs White Sulphur Springs, and Lewisburg was made without incident. The officers and men suffered greatly from hunger, but no complaint was heard. From White Sulphur Springs the Eighth Ohio Cavalry was sent to overtake and accompany a train to Beverly which had left us on the 16th at Liberty.
I beg leave to commend for enterprise and activity, for an intelligent and faithful execution of orders, Lieutenant Grim, First West Virginia Cavalry, and Lieutenant Kerr, Fourteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry. Captain Winger, Eighth Ohio Cavalry, elicited the admiration and encomiums of his comrades by his daring gallantry in the attack in front of Lynchburg. Colonels Schoonmaker and Moore in front of Liberty behaved with great credit. Colonel Powell proved himself at all times a capable brigade commander.
WM. W. AVERELL.
Lieut. Col. CHARLES G. HALPINE,
Asst. Adjt. Gen., Department of West Virginia.

 

For more on Averell and the 1864 Valley Campaign see:

Layout 1

 

Leave a comment

Filed under Battles, Uncategorized

The Battle of Piedmont: Account by Adjutant Caldwell, 12th West Virginia Infantry

On the 18th of May, our regiment and the Thirty-fourth Massachusetts with two pieces of artillery moved from Cedar Creek, five or six miles up the Valley to Fisher’s Hill, and occupied it as a picket. Gen. Sigel came out to our camp there. The next day the two regiments fell back two or three miles to Strasburg and occupied an old fort there built by Gen. Banks. We received today mail – always a welcome receipt to the boys, the first since leaving Winchester, ten days before. In the evening the Thirty-fourth band came to the headquarters of the Twelfth to give us a serenade. Speeches were made by Col. Curtis, Adjt. Caldwell and Capt. Smiley of our regiment.

 

On the 2nd, Gen. Sigel was relieved from command here and Gen. Hunter assigned to his place. Three days later we were reinforced at Cedar Creek by three more regiments of infantry, the Second Maryland, the Fourth Virginia and the One Hundred and Sixtieth Ohio, and about this time, or a little later we were further reinforced by the Fifth New York Heavy artillery.

 

On the 25th, we drew ten days’ rations of coffee and sugar and three days’ rations of hard bread. The troops from Cedar Creek came up, all having had marching orders. We were now about to start on the memorable campaign against Lynchburg. Hunter had issued his famous order announcing to his troops that they were about to enter on an explosion of hardships, in which they would have to live off the enemy, and if need be to eat mule meat. The infantry were required to carry each man 80 or 100 rounds of ammunition. A little after noon of this day the great march began of what was known as Hunter’s raid. We camped in the evening near Woodstock. On the way the cavalry burned a house and barn, by orders of Gen. Hunter, the owner having been engaged in bushwhacking.

 

On the 29th we resumed our march passing through Edinburg and Mount Jackson, crossing the Shenandoah here on a bridge newly built by the Rebels to replace the one burnt by Sigel and camped near New Market and the ground of the battle of two weeks before. Some members of the regiment looked over the battle field. They found that our dead had been buried in a heap where some stone had been quarried out. The dead of the enemy that had not been taken to their homes, had been buried in the cemetery at New Market. The enemy had left 31 of our wounded at this town and vicinity, who it had appeared had been quite well taken care of. This night our regiment went on picket on the bridge over the river in our rear. The second day after our arrival here, two companies of the Twelfth I and K were detailed to fill in with stone the wodden abuttments of the bridge, and the Thirty-fourth Massachusetts went out foraging; thus making a beginning of living off the enemy.

 

We remained here until June 2nd, when we marched at 5 o’clock A. M. our regiment in the rear of the wagon train, arriving at Harrisburg in the evening, our advance having driven Imboden out of town. The Rebels left some sixty of our wounded and thirty of theirs here, brought up from New Market. Distance marched this day 24 miles.

 

On the 4th, we marched from here taking the pike leading to Staunton, but Hunter finding Imboden posted about seven miles ahead at Mount Crawford after examining this position, turned to the left taking a side road leading via Port Republic. Seven miles from Harrisburg we came to Cross Keys where the forces of Fremont and Jackson fought on June 8th, 1862, and a little farther on to where the Rebel Col. Ashy was killed. At Port Republic on the south branch of the Shenandoah our pioneers put a pontoon bridge over the river on which we crossed and marched about one mile on the road leading to Staunton.

 

Early in the morning of the 5th, we resumed our march, but did not go far until our cavalry began skirmishing with the Rebels, driving them and capturing a number of prisoners. It may be well to say here that an Irish woman, who accompanied the First New York cavalry was noticed helping tenderly to bury some of the killed “my (her) boys” of that regiment that morning.
Seven miles from Port Republic we found the Rebels in force, consisting of the commands of Generals Vaughn and Imboden, and a number of militia, numbering in all, as learned from prisoners, between 8,000 and 9,000 men, all under the command of Gen. W. E. Jones. Hunter’s command consisted in all of 8,500 men, the infantry in two brigades the First commanded by Col. Moor, and the Second by Col. Thoburn. The cavalry were under command of Gen. Stahl, the infantry under Gen. Sullivan.

 

The enemy were posted on either side of the pike their right drawn back somewhat. They had breastworks of rails extending at least from the pike to the Middle river on their left, several hundred yards distant. Hunter made disposition for battle at once, and the engagement that followed is known as the Battle of Piedmont. The First Brigade was formed on the right of the pike, and the Second Brigade on the left. The opposing forces faced each other from either side from the edge of woods, with several hundred yards of cleared land between.

 

The battle began. It was opened by the artillery from each side. The Twelfth and the Thirty-fourth Massachusetts of Thoburn’s brigade were ordered forward through the woods, on the left of the pike with a view to charging some of the enemy’s artillery; when being discovered they were vigorously shelled by the enemy. After awhile they were brought back to the point where they had entered the woods. While waiting here for the coming of the balance of their brigade Colonels Thoburn and Curtis and Adjt. G. B. Caldwell with their orderlies, rode out into the open ground forming a group, for the purpose of watching the effect of the artillery fire. They were discovered by the Rebels, who threw a shell right into their midst, which exploding took off the fore-leg of the Adjutant’s little mare. That group immediately dispersed.

 

The other regiments having come up, Col Thoburn moved his brigade forward in the open ground into a slight hollow, within 200 yards of the enemy for the purpose of making a flank charge upon him. While the infantry were moving forward into this position, the artillery on each side opened up a heavy fire, and the Rebel band played “Dixie,” while ours played “Yankee Doodle.” Just before the charge that gallant young officer Capt. Meigs, of Hunter’s staff rode backward and forward along the line encouraging the men to do their duty on this charge, and the day would be ours, that they must not hesitate or falter but go right through, that we were now a hundred miles from our lines, and that defeat would be disastrous. The First Brigade had made three charges right in the face of the Rebel front and had been repulsed. But we will let Adjt. G. B. Caldwell of the Twelfth tell the story of the battle in his graphic and enthusiastic way, as it came red hot from his pen a few days after for the Wheeling Intelligencer; or more particularly of the part taken in the engagement by the Twelfth. The letter was written from the headquarters of the regiment at Staunton and is as follows:

 

This regiment moved from camp at Port Republic at 6 o’clock A. M., June 5, 1864. Our forces marching forward towards Staunton some four miles, our cavalry became engaged and drove the enemy a distance of one and a half miles, suffering a loss of thirty, killed and wounded. Capt. Imboden a brother of the general’s was taken here. The ball then opened by the loud mouthed artillery bellowing forth, both Union and Rebel in hellish dialogue of the death answering each other’s thunderous salutations. Post the crackling and roaring of Rebel woolen factories, consumed by flames kindled by the land of Union retributive justice; past the roaring batteries; past Carlin’s braves stripped to the shirt sewing out iron vengeance to traitors, the Second Brigade, our fearless, cool and sound-judging Col. Joe Thoburn commanding, marched a mile to the very front, forming the left of our force. The position was 150 yards from the Rebel lines drawn tip behind a fortification of fence rails, so arranged as to make perfect protection against musketry. Here for one hour and a half in a woods at one and one-half miles range, the two twenty pounder Parrott guns of the enemy were served entirely against us with all possible rapidity and great precision, amid the tremendous explosion of shell, the profuse of rain of case shoe the fall of trees and limbs, amid wounded and dying among all these combinations of horror, with not a gun fired by us and no excitement to cause a wild carelessness of danger, our line never wavered.

 

The first Brigade (our right) being heavily pressed moved us in retreat perhaps half a mile undetected by the enemy. This manouver was admirably masked in the woods like our advance before in the morning. A wide hollow whose descending sides were open fields stretched between the First and Second Brigades. Across this we must go. Our batteries open their fiercest fire, from hill to hill leap the ponderous black messengers of destruction, the reverberations of half a hundred, guns, on both sides, brought into action by the endeavor our batteries make to attract the attention of the enemy’s ordnance, make earth tremble, and the air roar while we run the fiery gauntlet to reinforce our right. With unbroken lines we march over with steady tread.

 

The Rebels occupy a woods in whose edge they have as on their right, an admirably impromptu fence barricaded. Up we go to within 100 yards, lie down, fire and draw the Rebel fire. Men are struck all along the line. Most of the enemy’s rifles are empty. Springing to their feet and cheering wildly the men rush forward and over the parapet. Our color bearer plants that banner of holy hopes and hallowed memories right where the sheet of Rebel flame runs crackling along, and mounting up cries, “Come on boys here’s where I want you.” Gloriously forward we go right into the woods our flag the first our regiment the foremost, the Rebels contending in a hand to hand struggle. Prisoners stream to the rear by the hundreds. Other regiments come to our support.

 

The character of the conflict is attested by bayoneted Rebel dead. The emblematic rags of treason their battle flags, a few minutes before planted in the dirt. They flee in utter rout and one wild shout of “Victory is ours!” runs along for more than a mile through infantry, artillery, cavalry, through stragglers and wagon trains, till the very wounded in the hospitals cheer again and again. The conduct of the men cannot be too much praising. Often a soldier would press forward so furiously as to be enclosed single-handed among a mass of Rebels, surrendering to be recaptured instantly by his advancing comrades. The whole Rebel force having fled, we camped for the night in the woods among the Rebel dead, too numerous to be buried till the morrow.

 

Thirty ambulances constantly running with the attendants, cannot collect all the wounded into hospitals, even in the long hours of this summer afternoon and evening. They have from two to three to our one in killed and wounded, and 1,000 able bodied prisoners, 60 officers, four or five colonels, Brig. Gen. Jones, their commanded killed, 1,700 stand of arms, four or five stand of colors and last and best Staunton grace our triumph.

 

 

Corp Joseph Halstead, 12th West Virginia Inf. W. B. Curtis Collection, WVU

Corp Joseph Halstead, 12th West Virginia Inf.
W. B. Curtis Collection, WVU

And here let me pause to pay a tribute to the memory of one of our own country’s martyrs in our holy cause, our color bearer Corporal Joseph S. Halstead. A braver spirit never bore the banner of beauty and glory forward amid the bursting shells and the leaden rain of death. With comrades falling all around him he went ahead of the bravest, ahead of his brigade. The head and front of that terrific charge into the jaws of death, he rushed forward and planted our flag on the very parapet sheeted with flames from the enemy’s rifles. Then over and forward again goes our banner into the hand to hand conflict in which that glorious day’s fate was decided. He falls at last, but if there be consolation in such an hour, and to a Christian and one so wholly a soldier as he, he has it to the full a knowledge of his country’s glory and his own. In the moment of victory with a broken and dispirited enemy flying before us with the shouts of comrades drunk with the enthusiasm of the hour rendering the very sky, with the valor of our arms attested by the piles of grey-clothed dead and hurt around him with the deep heart-felt admiration of all, attracted by his surpassing daring, with his comrades standing around him in speechless and tearful sympathy, with prisoners streaming or crowding to the rear, colonels and subordinates in traitor regalia, their perjured leader stricken dead by loyal vengeance, he fell at the very acme of our triumph, battling the flag which be had borne so royally to glory and to victory, with blood as noble as ever coursed through patriot veins. Poor Halstead among the brave the choicest spirit of them all, long will his memory be cherished and his valor in that, hour of carnage and triumph be the theme of the bivonac talks of his comrades.

 

Col. William B. Curtis 12th West Virginia Inf W. B. Curtis Collection WVU

Col. William B. Curtis
12th West Virginia Inf
W. B. Curtis Collection
WVU

Col. Curtis had the pleasure of receiving the sword of a Virginia regiment’s colonel, whose surrender he demanded. One of our Marshall county boys had the honor of bringing a Rebel colonel “to time.” He, the Marshall county boy is a young fellow of about 17. Another from Hancock county, I. N. Cullen, (Comp.) had a grey header Confed bring a musket to his breast with an order to surrender. He threw the musket aside and twisted it out of the old fellow’s hands, then kicking him over the parapet and out of the woods saying, “Old man you’re too old for me to bayonet.” Another Ohio county boy mounted the parapet in the charge and looking down on the Rebs, says “Lookout Johnnys we’re coming down on you like a thousand of brick” That was funny at such a time – It was “in the cool.”

 

In the morning before the fight, Gen. Jones drew his men tip and told them that we were going to avenge Fort Pillow, that to surrender would be to die; and such stuff for an hour. If anything was wanting to prove the superior humanity of the Union soldiers or the barbarism induced in the South by slavery here it might have been found. First Sergeant Hart Marks, of Company K, accepted the surrender of a Rebel lieutenant and passed on to the front. The Rebel drew a revolver from under his coat and shot him, fortunately slightly, in the back, yet our boys spared him. I know of more such cases, several. Marks shortly afterwards received two wounds, one in side, and one in the shoulder, the last having passed through a twisted blanket, while charging the woods, the Rebels being behind the trees. Another of our regiment, the eccentric Barney Wyles, pressed ahead too far and was surrounded; he surrendered but his captor shot at him after surrender, with a revolver, cutting his clothes. Our men rushed on him, wrested the revolver from him, and then spared him. All evening could you see Union soldiers feeding wounded Rebels, and food was scarce with us then, having to come all in the shape of forage. In every regiment a number of instances can be given of such treachery as above. Could any contrast be greater?


For more on the battle of Piedmont see:

197.0 Piedmont Battle

 

Leave a comment

Filed under Battles, Uncategorized

May 31, 1864: Major Joseph Stearns, 1st New York Cav., Defies Hunter’s Order to Burn Newtown (Stephen’s City)

     In the spring of 1864, Confederates from Maj. Harry Gilmor’s 2nd Maryland Cavalry Battalion and Col. John S. Mosby’s Rangers repeatedly waylaid Union wagon trains in the village of Newtown, Hunter warned the townspeople that he would burn the town if they did not see to it that the attacks stopped. When the report of yet another attack on a Union wagon train being attacked in Newtown reached Hunter when his army was at New Market, he became enraged and determined to make good on his promise to burn Newtown.

     “Black Dave” ordered Major Timothy Quinn to detail two hundred men from his 1st New York Lincoln Cavalry and “proceed to Newtown tomorrow morning at 3 o’clock, for the purpose of burning every house, store and out-building in that place, except the churches and houses and out-buildings of those who are known to be loyal citizens of the United States.” Hunter exempted the home of Dr. Owens of Newtown, who had treated wounded U. S. soldiers with compassion after Gilmor’s attack. The Federal commander ordered Quinn not to burn homes belonging to Confederates if such action endangered a loyal citizen’s property.

     Quinn detailed the morbid task to Major Joseph Stearns. The New Yorkers promptly rode out of camp well before dawn on May 31. Only a few officers knew the true purpose of their mission. Most troopers simply speculated on the latest move. Major Stearns’ battalion covered the forty miles between New Market and Newtown in one day and bivouacked for the night on the Stickley farm at Cedar Creek.

      Early the next morning (June 1), Stearns revealed the purpose of the mission to the men. The sullen troopers rode toward Newtown, “more like a funeral procession than a marching army.” Elderly citizens and young children stood in the door-ways of houses “with an expression of mute helplessness on their faces.” The enlisted men of the 1st New York spoke only of not obeying Hunter’s order to burn the town.

     The people of Newtown had been “in great anxiety expecting to be burned out” ever since Gilmor’s attack. Major Stearns and his officers rode into the village and conferred with the leading citizens of Newtown. The townsmen informed the understanding Major that they had no control over the Confederate forces that made the attack. They explained how they had nursed U. S. soldiers wounded in Gilmor’s attack.

     After talking to the men and hearing the mournful prayers of the tearful women, Stearns courageously determined to face Hunters wrath and saved the innocent people of Newtown from “Black Dave’s” fiery vengeance. In return, the townspeople took an oath of allegiance to the United States. The New Yorkers then turned around and marched back to the army. In the end, Hunter verbally lambasted Stearns, but allowed his actions to stand. Stearns’s heroism was a different sort than we commonly think of relating to the Civil War, but he displayed a valor the prevented the ruination of the lives of scores of innocent resident of Newtown, now Stephen’s City, Virginia.

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

The Battle of New Market: Recollections of a West Virginia Artilleryman

Leave a comment

May 16, 2014 · 12:07 am

The Battle of Cedar Creek: Maj. D. A. Grimsley, 6th Virginia Cavalry, Col. William Payne’s Brigade (Note click on article, it will go to a new page and then use the magnifying tool to increase font)

Cedar Creek

Leave a comment

October 17, 2013 · 10:19 pm

Dog Jack at the Battle of Cedar Creek – Mascot of the 102nd Pennsylvania Infantry

dog jackDGJKimage216

2 Comments

Filed under Battles, Uncategorized

The Staff of Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan

Sheridan and StaffLooking for some help to Identify the men of Sheridan’s staff. So far here is what I have come up with.

Updated thanks to some help from Stefan and JD :) and my own continued detective work. Thanks.

Sheridan’s Staff – June 1864

Top Row Standing on Porch:

Capt. Joseph O’Keeffe,  Capt. Michael V. Sheridan,  Lt. Col. Frederick Newhall, Unknown, Maj. George “Sandy” Forsyth, Capt. Louis Carpenter, Unknown, Capt. James F. Wade

Standing on Top Step:

Might this be Col. C. R. Smith of the 6th PA Cav? Sheridan had him on his staff.

Bottom Row:

Unknown, Capt. Thomas W. C. Moore, Col. James “Tony” Forsyth, Gen. Sheridan

All officers to the right of Sheridan are unknown at this time. Any help you can provide in identifying any of these officers is greatly appreciated. It is interesting to try and figure out and one can go back and forth on id’s. For example, Sheridan’s brother Michael could be one of two men. If you look at a picture of MVS twenty years later, the second man from the left in top row seems to be the proper id. However, it was said that he looked just like Phil. Looking at General S’s photograph as a lieutenant in the Regular Army in the 1850’s, the third man from left on the top row is a convincing choice.

15 Comments

Filed under Biographical, Uncategorized